Objectives of Planning
Objectives of planning
Planning has been considered a panacea for all economic ills. It is, therefore, advocated for the achievement of a variety of objectives.
It may be adopted for increasing national income or raising living standards or to fill up gaps in economic structure or to achieve self-sufficiency in food and raw materials or for bringing about rapid and adequate industrialization or to correct serious imbalances or lopsidedness in economic development or to reduce inequalities and to establish a socialistic pattern of society, and so on.
The objectives are not the matching for all nations or for a state at all times. What specifically are the objectives placed by the planners before them depends on the phase of economic growth, socio-economic circumstances prevailing at the time and the conditions of a particular state. It may be pointed out at the same tune that all these objectives are inter-related and complementary rather than exclusive.
We may now set out the most important objectives of planning:—
1. To Achieve Full Employment. In reasonably advanced nations, the aim of the State is to present full employment. Unemployment is the by-product of private enterprise and is well thought-out to be the major nuisance of a current capitalistic society. If capitalism cannot be ended, at any rate, unemployment must be ended. In such cases efforts at planned development ate directed into those routes and those segments where unemployment is found to exist. The State can reallocate labor and create work opportunities. We in India might not be capable to generate circumstances of complete employment in the foreseeable future but we can certainly decrease the frequency of unemployment.
2.Take full advantage of National Income and Raising Living Standards. This is an extra admirable objective that the planners seek to pursue especially in poor countries like India. Only planned attempts can elevate national income substantially.
3. Rapid Industrialization. This objective believes importance in nations which have been lagging behind in the pursuit of industrialization. It is understood that industrialization makes more significant contribution to the raising of national income and to the solution of the difficulty of unemployment
4.Self-sufficiency in Food and Raw Materials. As a preparation for more methodical and thorough planning, it may be considered necessary first to build the nation self-sufficient in foodstuff and vital raw resources. That would provide a solid and sound case for the economy and prepare it for further building up. Political autonomy may prove a legend without freedom from foreign food, especially when war clouds may be hovering overhead.
5. Reduction of disparities. It is now comprehended that political impartiality is illusory except if it is escorted by financial parity. Conspicuous disparities of assets, revenue and opportunities are dreadful to the independent principles. In poor countries, it is a painful sight that the masses of people should be on the border Hue of starvation whereas a few rich people should be rolling in all conceivable luxuries. It is natural, therefore, that the planners, who are custodians of general welfare, should so shape their plans as to make the poor people less poor and the rich a little less rich so that the gulf between the two is narrowed down as much as is humanly possible.
Conclusion. It is not necessary that the planning authority should adopt only one objective. That perhaps may be possible for countries like the U.S.A. and European countries which are economically well advanced and which have not much to seek now. But the under-developed countries suffer from several shortcomings and the plans must pay attention to various important objectives simultaneously. Their plans are generally multi-objective. However, lest the effort should get diffused, it is necessary to confine to a few principal Objectives at one time choosing those which may be felt to be the most essential in the context of the economic situation prevailing at the time.